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Ayatollah Mahmoud Haji Daryaei is a character that appears in several Tom Clancy novels. The Supreme Leader of Iran, Daryaei invaded Iraq in 1996 and merged it with Iran to form the United Islamic Republic. He then sought to conquer Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to transform the UIR into a new superpower but ultimately failed and was later assassinated by the United States.


The Sum of All Fears

In 1991, Daryaei was the Supreme Leader of Iran. He opposed Jack Ryan's Vatican Treaty for peace in the Middle East and was later falsely implicated by Palestinian terrorists in the Denver Super Bowl bombing. As a result, U.S. President Robert Fowler orders a nuclear strike on Daryaei's residence in the holy city of Qom. Jack Ryan averts the crisis by enforcing the two-man rule and lies to Fowler, claiming that Qom was destroyed. Afterwards, the terrorists revealed that Iran was not involved and that they were attempting to discredit the United States in order to destroy the peace settlement. Fowler subsequently resigns in disgrace as a result of his actions.

Executive Orders

In 1996, Ayatollah Daryaei ordered an Iranian deep cover agent to assassinate Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq. Taking advantage of the power vacuum, Daryaei launched an unopposed invasion of Iraq. With Iraq now under his control, Daryaei unites it with Iran to form the United Islamic Republic. Daryaei then sought to transform the new country into a superpower by launching an invasion on the neighboring Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. To accomplish this, Daryaei formulated a plan to weaken the United States so that they would not interfere with his invasion. Daryaei orchestrated a series of terrorist attack on the United States: a biological attack in the country using a weaponized strain of Ebola virus, a kidnapping attempt on President Jack Ryan's youngest daughter Katie Ryan from her school, and an assassination attempt on the President himself by a Secret Service bodyguard named Aref Raman who was actually an Iranian sleeper agent.

Daryaei then contacted a senior Chinese diplomat named Zhang Han San and the Prime Minister of India to form an alliance in secret. Han San causes a diplomatic crisis between the Chinese mainland and Taiwan by ordering a PLAAF aircraft to shoot down a Taiwanese airliner. The incident pulled a U.S. Navy carrier group from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea and allowed the Indian Navy's own carrier group to move undetected to the Strait of Hormuz, cutting off access to the only sea-bound pathway to the UIR and Saudi Arabia. Believing the U.S. Government and military to be overwhelmed by a multitude of crisis, Daryaei launched the invasion of Saudi Arabia

Daryaei underestimated the U.S., however, as the kidnapping attempt on Katie Ryan and the assassination attempt on the President are both thwarted by the FBI and Secret Service. Additionally, while the Ebola pandemic immobilized almost the entire U.S. military apparatus, its inability to spread effectively resulted in its swift burn out. Afterwards, CIA agents John Clark and Domingo Chavez traced the virus' origin to Africa and learned of Daryaei's involvement. This prompted President Ryan to deploy the remainder of the U.S. military to assist Saudi and Kuwaiti military forces in repelling a UIR invasion of Saudi Arabia. He then threatened the Prime Minister of India with retaliation if the Indian Navy Ships blocking the Strait of Hormuz interfere with approaching U.S. forces, forcing her to comply and back out of Daryaei's alliance.

The tide soon turned against the UIR, with its forces obliterated by the combined firepower of the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Meanwhile, President Ryan had sent Clark and Chavez to the UIR capital of Tehran to target Daryaei with assistance from Russian intelligence. After Daryaei's was confirmed to by occupying his residence, he was assassinated with precision guided munitions dropped from F-117 Nighthawks. The UIR was dissolved soon after when President Ryan threatened to launch a nuclear strike on Tehran unless those responsible for the attacks were immediately extradited to the U.S. to face charges, and the facility where the weaponized Ebola was cultured is neutralized.